Repost - The code that took America to the moon was just published to GitHub, and it’s like a 1960s time capsule
When programmers at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory set out to develop the flight software for the Apollo 11 space program in the mid-1960s, the necessary technology did not exist. They had to invent it.
They came up with a new way to store computer programs, called “rope memory,” and created a special version of the assembly programming language. Assembly itself is obscure to many of today’s programmers—it’s very difficult to read, intended to be easily understood by computers, not humans. For the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC), MIT programmers wrote thousands of lines of that esoteric code.
Here’s a very 1960s data visualization of just how much code they wrote—this is Margaret Hamilton, director of software engineering for the project, standing next to a stack of paper containing the software:
The AGC code has been available to the public for quite a while–it was first uploaded by tech researcher Ron Burkey in 2003, after he’d transcribed it from scanned images of the original hardcopies MIT had put online. That is, he manually typed out each line, one by one.
“It was scanned by a airplane pilot named Gary Neff in Colorado,” Burkey said in an email. “MIT got hold of the scans and put them online in the form of page images, which unfortunately had been mutilated in the process to the point of being unreadable in places.” Burkey reconstructed the unreadable parts, he said, using his engineering skills to fill in the blanks.
“Quite a bit later, I managed to get some replacement scans from Gary Neff for the unreadable parts and fortunately found out that the parts I filled in were 100% correct!” he said.
The effort made the code available to any researcher or hobbyist who wanted to explore it. Burkey himself even used the software to create a simulation of the AGC:
How to get XPATH for Internet explorer?
Alternate for firebug in Internet explorer?
Open IE in a new browser with a blank pageAdd a new Favorites and name it XPATH1Open the Favorites menu and right click the newly added favorite and select properties option.Select the web Document Tab. Enter the following in the URL field:
Here is a list of all time favorite software testing books in no particular order:
General Testing Books
Marnie Hutcheson, 'Software Testing Fundamentals' Wiley, April 2003
Erik van Veenendaal, 'The Testing Practitioner' UTN Publishers, Sept 2002
Paul Gerrard and Neil Thompson, 'Risk-based e-business Testing' Artech House, 2002
Louise Tamres, 'Introducing Software Testing' Pearson Education, 2002
Cem Kaner, James Bach and Bret Pettichord, 'Lessons Learned in Software Testing' Wiley, 2002
Martin Pol, Ruud Teunissen and Erik Van Veenendaal, 'Software Testing: a guide to the TMap Approch' Addison Wesley, 2002
Rick D. Craig and Stefan P. Jaskiel, 'Systematic Software Testing' Artech House, 2002
Ron Patton, 'Software Testing' Sams Publishing, 2001
John Watkins, Testing IT: an off-the-shelf testing process' Cambridge University Press, 2001
William E. Perry, 'Effective Methods for Software Testing' Wiley, 2…